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Primary School Standard Curriculum (KSSR)

Transformation of the National Curriculum based on the decision of the Follow-up Meeting of the Council of Ministers No. 6/2008 chaired by Y.B. Minister of Education on 23 May 2008. An effort to improve the national education system, especially at the primary school level, needs to be implemented so that the school curriculum meets current and future needs and challenges. Accordingly, the Malaysian Ministry of Education (KPM) has carried out a study and found that there is a need to transform the primary school curriculum.

Primary school curriculum transformation is the reorganization and improvement of the existing primary school curriculum. The purpose of the transformation is to ensure that students are provided with knowledge, skills and values that are relevant to current needs to face the challenges of the 21st century. The primary school curriculum transformation focus is on reading, writing and counting skills (3M), instead taking into account reasoning skills, creativity and innovation, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and entrepreneurial elements.

In the process of transforming the primary school curriculum, the MoE has benchmarked with the school curriculum of developed countries to ensure that the national school curriculum developed is comparable to global education. In addition, MoE also seeks input from various stakeholders such as Non-Governmental Organizations, industry, academics and parents. Based on these inputs, the standard-based primary school curriculum concept was developed.

Further to that, the primary school curriculum concept was approved by the Central Curriculum Committee Meeting No. 3/2009 on 2 October 2009. The Ministry of Education developed the Primary School Standard Curriculum (KSSR) based on the principles of the Primary School Integrated Curriculum (KBSR) and based on the National Education Philosophy. The curriculum developed also involves the Special Education curriculum. To ensure that the curriculum is robust, pilot implementation has been carried out in selected primary schools across the country.


The Primary School Standard Curriculum aims to produce people who are balanced, think creatively, critically and innovatively through the pillars of communication, science and technology, physical development and aesthetics, personal skills, humanity and spirituality, attitudes and values

Primary School Standard Curriculum is based on the National Education Philosophy and National Education Policy. KSSR takes into account the challenges of the 21st century, the New Economic Model (MBE) and the latest learning theory. KSSR also adopts the four pillars of UNESCO education, namely learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be.

Students who follow KSSR will have the following basics:

  • A person who is intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, physically and socially balanced
  • Responsible citizens
  • Citizens who can play a role in the global arena (Global Player)
  • Knowledgeable workers


The Primary School Standard Curriculum maintains all KBSR principles. This principle is maintained because it is still appropriate and relevant to produce balanced and holistic people. The principles are as follows:

An integrated approach

The main focus is on an integrated approach. The elements of knowledge, skills and values are combined so that there is unity in terms of intellectual, spiritual, emotional, physical and social.

Overall Individual Development

KSSR was formulated to ensure that all subjects play a role in meeting intellectual, spiritual, emotional, physical and social needs. Each student’s potential is developed in an integrated manner.

Equitable Education For All Students

KSSR provides a broad and fair opportunity for all students to gain comprehensive and balanced knowledge and skills.

Lifelong Education

KSSR provides the knowledge and skills needed by all students as a foundation to face the challenges of everyday life and lifelong education.


The concept of pillar introduced in KSSR, is a form of classification of fields of knowledge, skills and values. This concept focuses on the formation of balanced human capital in terms of physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and social. The six pillars identified represent the fields of knowledge, skills and values that form the basis for the development of people who think creatively, critically and innovatively. The pillars describe the explicit structuring of the fields of knowledge, skills and values that students need to master. Each pillar is interconnected and integrated.

Pillar of Communication

The Communication Pillar emphasizes the process of combining verbal and non-verbal language skills while interacting. This pillar focuses on language skills such as listening and speaking, reading and writing, as well as the added value of reasoning.

Students need to master these skills to help them in the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and values in other pillars. Mastery of language skills prepares students to make appropriate and systematic language choices in social interaction.
The knowledge disciplines in the Communication Pillar are Malaysian, English, Chinese, Tamil, Arabic, National School Chinese, National School Tamil, Iban, Kadazandusun and Semai.

Pillar of Physical and Aesthetic Development

The pillar of Physical Development and Aesthetics emphasizes physical development and health for personal well-being and the cultivation of imagination, creativity, talent and appreciation. The disciplines of knowledge that develop the physical aspect are Physical Education and Health Education. Creativity, talent and appreciation are nurtured through Visual Arts Education and Music Education.

Pillar of Humanity

The Humanities Pillar emphasizes the mastery of knowledge and practice about society and the local, national and global environment, as well as the appreciation of the spirit of patriotism and unity. The knowledge discipline found in the Pillar of Humanity is History which is introduced from Level II of schooling.

Pillar of Self-Skills

The self-skills pillar places emphasis on nurturing leadership and personal character through curricular and co-curricular activities. Students are given the opportunity to integrate the knowledge, skills and values learned in the classroom and practice them in extracurricular activities. Involvement in co-curricular activities such as associations, uniformed bodies and sports gives students the opportunity to improve their potential as leaders to themselves, peers, family and society.

Pillar of Science and Technology

Science and Technology pillars emphasize mastery of:
• scientific knowledge, skills and scientific attitudes
• knowledge, skills and values in mathematics
• technology-based knowledge and skills

The knowledge disciplines found in the Pillar of Science and Technology Literacy are Science, Mathematics, Design and Technology (RBT) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

Spiritual Pillar, Attitude And Values

Pillars of Spirituality, Attitudes and Values emphasize learning areas that focus on the appreciation of religious practices, beliefs, attitudes and values. Knowledge disciplines in this pillar include Islamic Education for Muslim students and Moral Education for non-Muslim students.

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